structure of bone

Compact bone tissue consists of units called osteons or Haversian systems. A long bone has two parts: the diaphysis and the epiphysis. If you cut a cross-section through a bone, you would first come across a thin layer of dense connective tissue. These adjectives correctly describe the bones of a preserved skeleton, but the bones in a living human being are very much alive. Did you have an idea for improving this content? These include the periosteum, compact bone, spongy bone and an inner core of bone marrow. Trabeculae in spongy bone are arranged such that one side of the bone bears tension and the other withstands compression. The neck of the femur must be strong enough to transfer the downward force of the body weight horizontally to the vertical shaft of the femur (Figure 2). The hollow region in the diaphysis is called the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow. In some cases, their main function is to provide protection such as the skull and ribs. The red bone marrow of the femur and the interior of other large bones, such as the ileum, forms blood cells. As the secreted matrix surrounding the osteoblast calcifies, the osteoblast become trapped within it; as a result, it changes in structure and becomes an osteocyte, the primary cell of mature bone and the most common type of bone cell. Imagine laying a heavy framed picture flat on the floor. You could hold up one side of the picture with a toothpick if the toothpick was perpendicular to the floor and the picture.

Many people think of bones as being dead, dry, and brittle. They remove bone structure by releasing lysosomal enzymes and acids that dissolve the bony matrix. The toothpick will break off right at the wall. Bone consists of four types of cells: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, and osteoprogenitor cells.

The structure of a long bone allows for the best visualization of all of the parts of a bone (Figure 1). Bone tissues include compact bone, spongy bone, bone marrow, and periosteum. These minerals, released from bones into the blood, help regulate calcium concentrations in body fluids. However, they do contain osteons, which are like canals, providing passageways through the hard bone matrix. Osteoblasts become trapped in these secretions and differentiate into less active osteocytes. This is known as the Periosteum.

The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Osteons are cylindrical structures that contain a mineral matrix and living osteocytes connected by canaliculi, which transport blood. Osteocytes maintain normal bone structure by recycling the mineral salts in the bony matrix. For more information contact us at or check out our status page at Osteoprogenitor cells are important in the repair of fractures. The bone matrix consists of tough protein fibers, mainly collagen, that become hard and rigid due to mineralization with calcium crystals. Compact bone tissue is composed of osteons and forms the external layer of all bones. The wider section at each end of the bone is calle… The Haversian canal (osteonic canal) contains the bone’s blood vessels and nerve fibers (Figure 1).

In fact, you are constantly making new bone tissue. The force on the picture is straight down to the floor, but the force on the toothpick is both the picture wire pulling down and the bottom of the hole in the wall pushing up. Spongy bone reduces the density of bone and allows the ends of long bones to compress as the result of stresses applied to the bone. Osteons in compact bone tissue are aligned in the same direction along lines of stress and help the bone resist bending or fracturing. Figure 2. The insides of the bone contain trabecular bonewhich is like scaffolding or a honey-comb. However, they must also be light enough to make movement possible. Spongy tissue is found on the interior of the bone, and compact bone tissue is found on the exterior. The centre of the bone shaft is hollow and known as the Medullary Cavity. Haversian canals contain blood vessels and nerve fibers. The outside cortical boneis solid bone with only a few small canals. The diaphysis is the tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of the bone. How does each type of tissue contribute to the functions of bone? But bones are very much living. Which of the following statements about bone tissue is false? Haversian canals contain blood vessels only. It is important for bones to be strong to support our body weight. Osteoblasts synthesize and secrete the organic part and inorganic part of the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, and collagen fibers. Identify the three types of specialized bone cells and what they do. Bone is full of blood and nerves and all sorts of cells and proteins, making it an extremely complex living tissue. The progenitor cells develop into osteoblasts (the cells responsible for bone formation). However, they … These processes help maintain mineralhomeostasis. Therefore, compact bone tissue is prominent in areas of bone at which stresses are applied in only a few directions. These cells are responsible for bone growth and mineral homeostasis. This is also known as articular cartilage. The neck of the femur is horizontal like the toothpick in the wall. As shown in Figure below, the basic structure of bones is bone matrix, which makes up the underlying rigid framework of bones, composed of both compact bone and spongy bone. Compare and contrast the structure and function of compact bone and spongy bone. We’d love your input. In this case, the function of the toothpick is to transmit the downward pressure of the picture to the wall. Their unique composition and design allows bones to be relatively hard and strong, while remaining lightweight. Have questions or comments? This bone contains different types of bone tissue. Bone matrix provides bones with their basic structure. The bone matrix consists of tough protein fibers, mainly collagen, that become hard and rigid due to mineralization with calcium crystals. The small dark ovals in the osteon represent the living osteocytes. Bone matrix is crisscrossed by blood vessels and nerves and also contains specialized bone cells that are actively involved in metabolic processes.

This is found in higher proportions in the flat and irregular bones.

Blood vessels within this tissue deliver nutrients to osteocytes and remove waste. Bone structure consists of a number of layers. Spongy bone tissue does not contain osteons that constitute compact bone tissue. Compact bone tissue consists of osteons that are aligned parallel to the long axis of the bone, and the Haversian canal that contains the bone’s blood vessels and nerve fibers. Whereas compact bone tissue forms the outer layer of all bones, spongy bone or cancellous bone forms the inner layer of all bones. The small dark ovals in the osteon represent the living osteocytes. (credit: modification of work by NCI, NIH) The spaces between the bone are filled with fluid bone marrow cells, which make the blood, and some fat cells. The weight of the body pushes it down near the joint, but the vertical diaphysis of the femur pushes it up at the other end. Bones consist of different types of tissue, including compact bone, spongy bone, bone marrow, and periosteum. Adopted or used LibreTexts for your course? The inner layer of bones consists of spongy bone tissue. It's common to think of bones as not living. Osteocytes are mature bone cells and are the main cells in bony connective tissue; these cells cannot divide. Mike is creator & CEO of The inner layer of bones consists of spongy bone tissue. The epiphyses of bones, such as the neck of the femur, are subject to stress from many directions. Bones are far from static, or unchanging. In some cases, their main function is to provide protection such as the skull and ribs.

This provides the bones strength and consists of tightly stacked layers of bone which appear to form a solid section. Bone may also be resorbed for remodeling, if the applied stresses have changed.

[ "article:topic", "showtoc:no", "license:ccbync", "authorname:ck12" ]. Instead, it consists of trabeculae, which are lamellae that are arranged as rods or plates. Bones are considered organs because they contain various types of tissue, such as blood, connective tissue, nerves, and bone tissue. All of these tissue types are shown in Figure below. The structure of bones Bones are composed of two types of tissue: 1. The hyaline cartilage and has no neural (nerve) or vascular (blood) supply. Notice the spongy bone in the middle, and the compact bone towards the outer region. Bone matrix is crisscrossed by blood vessels and nerves … Each osteocyte is located in a small cavity in the bone tissue called a lacuna (lacunae for plural). The periosteum provides a good blood supply to the bone and a point for muscular attachment. Here we explain the anatomy of bone and the function of each part.

It provides protection and strength to bones.


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